# Image classification from scratch

On 09.04.2021 by KesidaLast weekend I was thinking out loud. Would I be able to train a deep neural network to successfully classify these images since I have such little data? Well, after doing some research, I found out that having to train deep neural network with little data was a common situation people encountered in the field of computer vision. But I also found out that the solution to this problem was quite easy.

Alright you can go out and start gathering your data. Kaggle is the home of data science and machine learning practitioners worldwide. They host some of the biggest data science competitions and it is a great place for getting open source data as well as learning from winning experts. Well, I feel I should say this. It contains data sets that are collected from African businesses and organisation.

This is a big step in preventing bias in AI, and Zindi is a great platform. Okay, back to getting the data. We head over to this page on Kaggle. Here we have two options, we can either download the data and train our model locally on our Laptop or we can use Kaggle kernels which gives us more compute power, access to a GPU, and almost all the libraries pre-installed for machine learning and deep learning.

Clicking on the link, we teleport here. Note: It is generally a good idea to read the data description when you visit a Kaggle competition page. Next, click on Kernels then the blue New Kernel button on the top right corner, this will ask you to Select Kernel Type.

Pick Notebook so we can do some interactive programming. Clicking on Notebook creates a new private kernel for you and automatically adds the dogs vs cats dataset to your file path — in the cloud of course.

Type the following code and press shift Enter to run the cell. After importing the necessary libraries, we read our Images in to memory. The data is stored as Zip files in our kernel. We can see three files:. Note: All data file paths on kaggle start with the root directory. Remember its a random list, but luckily when I ran the code the first three images was made up to two dogs and one cat and notice that they have different dimensions.

A colored Image is made up of 3 channels, i. We could use 1 channel which would read our images in gray-scale format black and white. Now, lets write a little function that helps also read and then resize our images to the height and width stated above. X is now an array of image pixel values and y is a list of labels. And that my friend is a dog image.

Or we can say what our computer calls a dog. Well, remember we said lets 1 and 0 represent dogs and cats respectively. So we should use the imshow command. Remember we have a total of images dogs and catstherefore our label list y should contain of 1s and of 0s. Always check and confirm the shapes of your data, it is super important.

### Tutorial: Generate an ML.NET image classification model from a pre-trained TensorFlow model

We can see that our image is a tensor of rank 4, or we could say a 4 dimensional array with dimensions x x x 3 which correspond to the batch size, height, width and channels respectively. The model takes as input an array of height, width,channels. Now that our data is ready X,y we could start training, but first we have to do something that is very important, which is to split our data into train and validation set.

This is one of the most important things to do before you start training your model.Learn how to transfer the knowledge from an existing TensorFlow model into a new ML. NET image classification model. The TensorFlow model was trained to classify images into a thousand categories.

The ML. NET model makes use of part of the TensorFlow model in its pipeline to train a model to classify images into 3 categories. Training an Image Classification model from scratch requires setting millions of parameters, a ton of labeled training data and a vast amount of compute resources hundreds of GPU hours. While not as effective as training a custom model from scratch, transfer learning allows you to shortcut this process by working with thousands of images vs. This tutorial scales that process down even further, using only a dozen training images.

Note that by default, the. NET project configuration for this tutorial targets. NET core 2. Transfer learning is the process of using knowledge gained while solving one problem and applying it to a different but related problem. For this tutorial, you use part of a TensorFlow model - trained to classify images into a thousand categories - in an ML.

NET model that classifies images into 3 categories. Deep learning is a subset of Machine Learning, which is revolutionizing areas like Computer Vision and Speech Recognition. Deep learning models are trained by using large sets of labeled data and neural networks that contain multiple learning layers. Deep learning:. Image Classification is a common Machine Learning task that allows us to automatically classify images into categories such as:.

The Inception model is trained to classify images into a thousand categories, but for this tutorial, you need to classify images in a smaller category set, and only those categories. Enter the transfer part of transfer learning. You can transfer the Inception model 's ability to recognize and classify images to the new limited categories of your custom image classifier. This tutorial uses the TensorFlow Inception model deep learning model, a popular image recognition model trained on the ImageNet dataset.

Because the Inception model has already been pre trained on thousands of different images, internally it contains the image features needed for image identification. We can make use of these internal image features in the model to train a new model with far fewer classes. As shown in the following diagram, you add a reference to the ML.

NET NuGet packages in your. NET Core or.This example shows how to do image classification from scratch, starting from JPEG image files on disk, without leveraging pre-trained weights or a pre-made Keras Application model. We demonstrate the workflow on the Kaggle Cats vs Dogs binary classification dataset. Now we have a PetImages folder which contain two subfolders, Cat and Dog.

Each subfolder contains image files for each category.

Rdb quad railWhen working with lots of real-world image data, corrupted images are a common occurence. Let's filter out badly-encoded images that do not feature the string "JFIF" in their header. Here are the first 9 images in the training dataset.

As you can see, label 1 is "dog" and label 0 is "cat". When you don't have a large image dataset, it's a good practice to artificially introduce sample diversity by applying random yet realistic transformations to the training images, such as random horizontal flipping or small random rotations.

This helps expose the model to different aspects of the training data while slowing down overfitting. Our image are already in a standard size xas they are being yielded as contiguous float32 batches by our dataset. However, their RGB channel values are in the [0, ] range. This is not ideal for a neural network; in general you should seek to make your input values small. Here, we will standardize values to be in the [0, 1] by using a Rescaling layer at the start of our model.

With this option, your data augmentation will happen on devicesynchronously with the rest of the model execution, meaning that it will benefit from GPU acceleration. Note that data augmentation is inactive at test time, so the input samples will only be augmented during fitnot when calling evaluate or predict. Option 2: apply it to the datasetso as to obtain a dataset that yields batches of augmented images, like this:. With this option, your data augmentation will happen on CPUasynchronously, and will be buffered before going into the model.

If you're training on CPU, this is the better option, since it makes data augmentation asynchronous and non-blocking. We'll build a small version of the Xception network. We haven't particularly tried to optimize the architecture; if you want to do a systematic search for the best model configuration, consider using Keras Tuner. Setup import tensorflow as tf from tensorflow import keras from tensorflow.

Cat Dog. Deleted images. Found files belonging to 2 classes. Using files for training. Using files for validation.

Sequential [ layers. RandomFlip "horizontal"layers. RandomRotation 0. Rescaling 1. Rest of the model. Dropout 0. This image is NFL Survivor Picks Customized picks for survivor, suicide, and knockout pools. From the Blog Midseason Performance Update: NFL Survivor Picks With a very low percentage of the public still alive in survivor pools, here's how our NFL Survivor Picks customers are doing so far this year.

Arguing that model uncertainty and instability seriously impair the forecasting ability of individual predictive regression models, we recommend combining individual forecasts. Combining delivers statistically and economically significant out-of-sample gains relative to the historical average consistently over time.

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### Image classification from scratch

Product Market Competition Shocks, Firm Performance, and Forced CEO Turnover The Timimg amd Method of Paymemt im Mergers whem Acquirers Are Fimamcially Comstraimed Identifying Information Asymmetry in Securities Markets googletag. An index futures contract binds the parties to an agreed value for the underlying index at a specified future date.

Fair Value of an Index Future Although index futures are closely correlated to the underlying index, they are not identical. An investor in index futures does not receive (if long) or owe (if short) dividends on the stocks in the index, unlike an investor who buys or sells short the component stocks or an exchange-traded fund that tracks the index.

The index futures price must equal the underlying index value only at expiration. At any other time, the futures contract has a fair value relative to the index, which reflects the expected dividends forgone (a deduction from the index value) and the financing cost for the difference between the initial margin and the principal amount of the contract (an addition) between the trade date and expiration.

When interest rates are low, the dividend adjustment outweighs the financing cost, so fair value for index futures is typically lower than the index value.

Whenever the index futures price moves away from fair value, it creates a trading opportunity called index arbitrage. As soon as the index futures price premium, or discount to fair value, covers their transaction costs (clearing, settlement, commissions and expected market impact) plus a small profit margin, the computers jump in, either selling index futures and buying the underlying stocks if futures trade at a premium, or the reverse if futures trade at a discount.

Index Futures Trading Hours Index arbitrage keeps the index futures price close to fair value, but only when both index futures and the underlying stocks are trading at the same time. Liquidity in index futures drops outside stock exchange trading hours because the index arbitrage players can no longer ply their trade.

If the futures price gets out of whack, they cannot hedge an index futures purchase or sale through an offsetting sale or purchase of the underlying stocks. But other market participants are still active. Index Futures Predict the Opening Direction Suppose good news comes out abroad overnight - the ECB cuts interest rates, or China reports stronger than expected growth in GDP. The local equity markets will probably rise, and investors may anticipate a stronger U.

If they buy index futures, the price will go up.The term "better than evens" (or "worse than evens") varies in meaning depending on context. Looked at from the perspective of a gambler rather than a statistician, "better than evens" means "odds against". So, it is "better than evens" from the gambler's perspective because it pays out more than one-for-one. If an event is more likely to occur than an even chance, then the odds will be "worse than evens", and the bookmaker will pay out less than one-for-one.

In statistics, odds are an expression of relative probabilities, generally quoted as the odds in favor.

The odds (in favor) of an event or a proposition is the ratio of the probability that the event will happen to the probability that the event will not happen. Mathematically, this is a Bernoulli trial, as it has exactly two outcomes. For example, the odds that a randomly chosen day of the week is a weekend are two to five (2:5), as days of the week form a sample space of seven outcomes, and the event occurs for two of the outcomes (Saturday and Sunday), and not for the other five.

For example, the odds against a random day of the week being a weekend are 5:2. For example, "odds of a weekend are 2 to 5", while "chances of a weekend are 2 in 7". In casual use, the words odds and chances (or chance) are often used interchangeably to vaguely indicate some measure of odds or probability, though the intended meaning can be deduced by noting whether the preposition between the two numbers is to or in.

Odds as a ratio, odds as a number, and probability (also a number) are related by simple formulas, and similarly odds in favor and odds against, and probability of success and probability of failure have simple relations. This is a minor difference if the probability is small (close to zero, or "long odds"), but is a major difference if the probability is large (close to one).

These transforms have certain special geometric properties: the conversions between odds for and odds against (resp.

They are thus specified by three points (sharply 3-transitive). Swapping odds for and odds against swaps 0 and infinity, fixing 1, while swapping probability of success with probability of failure swaps 0 and 1, fixing. Converting odds to probability fixes 0, sends infinity to 1, and sends 1 to. In probability theory and Bayesian statistics, odds may sometimes be more natural or more convenient than probabilities. This is often the case in problems of sequential decision making as for instance in problems of how to stop (online) on a last specific event which is solved by the odds algorithm.

Similar ratios are used elsewhere in Bayesian statistics, such as the Bayes factor. Odds-ratios are often used in analysis of clinical trials. In some cases the log-odds are used, which is the logit of the probability.

Most simply, odds are frequently multiplied or divided, and log converts multiplication to addition and division to subtractions. Answer: The odds in favour of a blue marble are 2:13. One can equivalently say, that the odds are 13:2 against. There are 2 out of 15 chances in favour of blue, 13 out of 15 against blue. That value may be regarded as the relative probability the event will happen, expressed as a fraction (if it is less than 1), or a multiple (if it is equal to or greater than one) of the likelihood that the event will not happen.

In the very first example at top, saying the odds of a Sunday are "one to six" or, less commonly, "one-sixth" means the probability of picking a Sunday randomly is one-sixth the probability of not picking a Sunday. While the mathematical probability of an event has a value in the range from zero to one, "the odds" in favor of that same event lie between zero and infinity. It is 6 times as likely that a random day is not a Sunday. The use of odds in gambling facilitates betting on events where the relative probabilities of outcomes varied.

Airfield rc airplanesFor example, on a coin toss or a match race between two evenly matched horses, it is reasonable for two people to wager level stakes. However, in more variable situations, such as a multi-runner horse race or a football match between two unequally matched sides, betting "at odds" provides a perspective on the relative likelihoods of the possible outcomes.

In the modern era, most fixed odds betting takes place between a betting organisation, such as a bookmaker, and an individual, rather than between individuals. Different traditions have grown up in how to express odds to customers, older era's came with betting odds between people, today which is illegal in most countries, it was referred as "odding", an underground slang word with origins based in the Bronx. Favoured by bookmakers in the United Kingdom and Ireland, and also common in horse racing, fractional odds quote the net total that will be paid out to the bettor, should he or she win, relative to the stake.

However, not all fractional odds are traditionally read using the lowest common denominator. Odds with a denominator of 1 are often presented in listings as the numerator only. Fractional and Hong Kong odds are actually exchangeable.

The only difference is that the UK odds are presented as a fractional notation (e.PREMIO MOMENTO in the money last start running third at Echuca and has three placings from four runs this prep, hard to hold out. BLUEBROOK placed once this prep at Warrnambool and a strong finisher, each-way claims. Penthouse Playboy (3) Scratched 11. Castagne (4) Scratched 10. Subutai (7) PENTHOUSE PLAYBOY comes back to race at a country level and placed when fresh, leading hope.

CASTAGNE has two placings from five runs this prep and known to be strong late, quinella. PEPPINO racing back from metro track and draws to do no work, place claims. SUBUTAI has shown early speed in races to date, place hope. Red Liberty (6) 1. City of Pearls (7) 14. Misscino (11) ScratchedThis looks like a one act affair.

GRUNT resumes after a 29 week spell and placed at only start at long odds at Flemington, standout top pick. RED LIBERTY disappointed when placing as favourite last start at Geelong but known to be strong late and should run fitter for past attempts, needs the breaks. MISSCINO placed last start at Cranbourne and has three placings from five runs this prep, place best. Onehundred Percent (1) 1.

Last Request (7) 4. LAST REQUEST resumes from a long 44 week spell and winner when on debut at Benalla, could threaten.

MAGNORUM coming off a win at only start at Mornington, in with a chance.

Pathmark openingFUTURIST has won at Bendigo and placed three times this prep, looks threatening. Ransom Money (4) 1. Dangle Lad (2) 4. RANSOM MONEY has three placings from six runs this prep and racing back from metro track, could threaten.

DANGLE LAD 3 from four wins have been in the dry and capable of finising strongly, capable of getting into the money. MORTIFIED won last start at Moe and draws to do no work, place claims. Night's Watch (4) 5. Dodging Bullets (15) 11. Eschiele (13) Trying to find the quinella here with a dominant top pick.

NIGHT'S WATCH chased strongly to win last start at Sandown and won two of six when faced with a good track, leading hope.

AERATUS a winner at first outing this prep and has good early speed, not the worst. DODGING BULLETS has the speed to overcome a very wide draw and in strong form with two wins from seven attempts this campaign, place chance.And because of the belief we have in our cars we make sure we're completely open and display each and every one. Read ReviewsExplore i20Read ReviewsExplore i20 3 doorRead ReviewsExplore i20 ActiveRead ReviewsExplore ix20Read ReviewsExplore i30 TourerRead ReviewsExplore i40 SaloonRead ReviewsExplore i40 TourerRead ReviewsExplore TucsonRead ReviewsExplore Santa FeRead ReviewsExplore i800The cookie settings on this website are set to 'allow all cookies' to give you the very best experience.

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But with so many terrific random digits, it's a shame they didn't sort them, to make it easier to find the one you're looking for. It lists almost 600 integers in numerical order.

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